C. Richard Tracy - Publications
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Tracy, C.R. 1973. Dynamic ecology: A new look in an ecology text.

    Ecology 55(2): 459-460.

Tracy, C.R. 1975. Thermobiology. Bioscience 25(7): 460.

Tracy, C.R. 1981. Examples of form and function.

    Ecology 62(1): 285-286.

Tracy, C.R. 1988. Ideas and wisdom from physiologists.

    In: Some new directions in ecological physiology:

    Five views. Ecology



Parkhurst, D.F., C.R. Tracy, and J.W. Mitchell. 1971. Convection from leaf models in a forest. Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science 43rd Congress. (abstract)

Tracy, C.R. and W.P. Porter. 1973. Properties of air. University of Wisconsin Laboratory of Biophysical Ecology, Technical Report #1.

Tracy, C.R., W.R. Welch, and W.P. Porter. 1978. Properties of air: A manual for students in biophysical ecology. University of Wisconsin Laboratory of Biophysical Ecology, Technical Report #1 (2nd Edition).

Tracy, C.R., W.R. Welch, and W.P. Porter. 1980. Properties of air: A manual for students in biophysical ecology. University of Wisconsin Laboratory of Biophysical Ecology, Technical Report #1 (3rd Edition).

Tracy, C.R. and D. Inouye. 1982. QuickStat: A general statistical package for the Apple II. QuickSoft.

McGovern, M. and C.R.Tracy. 1982. Stepwise: A stepwise multiple linear regression program for the Apple II. QuickSoft.

McGovern, Mike and C.R. Tracy.  1984.  Non-par.  (A non-parametric statistical package for micro computers)

Tracy, C.R. and L.C. Zimmerman. 1984. Consortium turns flood disaster into scientific learning experience: Amphibian recolonization. Park Sciences 4(4): 4-7.

Innovations: The Heat is On. 1990. WNET – TV. One hour TV interview about global climate change.

Tracy, C.R. 1990. Minimum home range: A program for computing the minimum convex polygon as an estimate of home range size.

Tracy, C.R. and J. Sugar. 1990. The defecatory consequences of endothermy in dinosaurs. Journal of Irreproducible Results .

Brussard, P.F., K. Berry, M. Gilpin, E. Jacobson, D. Morafka, C. Schwalbe, C.R. Tracy, F. Vasek, and J. Hohman. 1992. Desert tortoise, Mojave population: Recovery plan.

Tracy, C. R. 1992. Issues and conflicts associated with the desert tortoise. In: Reauthorization of the Federal Endangered Species Act: A conference on issues and opportunities involved with the 1992 reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act. Western States Coordinating Council Publication, 35pp + exhibits.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Desert Tortoise (Mojave population) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR. 73 pp + appendices.

Tracy, C. R. and R. E. Espinoza. 1998. An inventory of the herpetofauna of the Nevada Army National Guard, Stead Training Site, Lemmon Valley, Washoe County, Nevada. Nevada Army National Guard. Carson City, NV, 31 pp.

Espinoza, R. E. and C. R. Tracy. 1999. An inventory of the herpetofauna of Hawthorne Army Depot, Mineral County, Nevada. Hawthorne Army Depot. Hawthorne, NV, 44 pp.


Tracy, C.R. and J.W. Dole. 1969. Evidence for the use of celestial orientation by California toads (Bufo boreas) during breeding migration. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 68(2): 10-17.

Tracy, C.R. and J.W. Dole. 1969. Orientation of displaced California toads (Bufo boreas) to their breeding sites. Copeia 1969(4): 693-700.

Harrison, H.L., O.L. Loucks, J.W. Mitchell, D.F. Parkhurst, C.R. Tracy, D.G. Watts, and V.J. Yannaconne. 1970. Systems studies of DDT transports: A system analysis now provides new insights for predicting long-term impacts of DDT in ecosystems. Science 170: 503-508.

Harrison, H.L., O.L. Loucks, J.W. Mitchell, and C.R. Tracy. 1971. Decay time of DDT. Science 172: 213-224.

Tracy, C.R. 1971. Evidence for the use of celestial cues by dispersing immature California toads (Bufo boreas). Copeia 1971(1): 145-147.

Tracy, C.R. 1972. Newton's Law: Its applicability for expressing heat losses from homeotherms. BioScience 22(1): 656-659.

Tracy, C.R. 1973. Observations on the social behavior of immature California toads (Bufo boreas) during feeding. Copeia 1973(2): 342-345.

Tracy, C.R. 1973. EDPOP: A U.S. human population simulator. University of Wisconsin Institute for Environmental Studies, Report Number 12.

Tracy, C.R. 1973. Perspectives in linear heat transfer. Science 181(4095): 184-186.

Porter, W.P. and C.R. Tracy. 1974. Environmental constraints of the predator-prey interactions between garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). In: Thermal Ecology, J.W. Gibbons and R.R. Sharitz (Eds.), Atomic Energy Commission Symposium Series (cong-730505).

Tracy, C.R. 1975. Water and energy relations of amphibians: Insights from mechanistic modelling. In: Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology. D.M. Gates and R. Schmerl (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1975. Discrepancies in global wheat production data. Ecologist 5(4): 134-135.

Riechert, S.E. and C.R. Tracy. 1975. Thermal balance and prey availability: Bases for a model relating web‑site characteristics to spider reproductive success. Ecology 56(2): 265-284.

Tracy, C.R., L. Buttel, T. Phillips, P. Cox, and L. Wood. 1975. A model of global wheat productivity: U.S. spring wheat. In: Proceedings of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Wheat-Yield Conference. D.E. Pitts and G.L. Barger (Eds.), NASA THX-58158.

Porter, W.P., J.W. Mitchell, W.A. Beckman, and C.R. Tracy. 1975. Environmental constraints on predator-prey interactions. In: Perspectives in Biophysical Ecology, D.M. Gates and R. Schmerl (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1976. A model of the dynamic exchanges of water and energy between a terrestrial amphibian and its environment. Ecological Monographs 46(3): 293-326.

Packard, G.C., C.R. Tracy, and J.J. Roth. 1976. The physiological ecology of reptilian eggs and embryos and the evolution of viviparity within the class reptilia. Biological Reviews 52: 71-105.

Tracy, C.R. 1976. Tyrannosaurs: Evidence for endothermy? American Naturalist 110(976): 1105-1106.

Welch, W.R. and C.R. Tracy. 1977. Respiratory water loss: A predictive model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 65: 253-265.

Tracy, C.R. 1977. Faces of the American ecologist. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 58: 5-6.

Bundy, D. and C.R. Tracy. 1977. Regulatory behavior in American toads (Bufo americanus) subjected to stressful thermal and hydric environments. Herpetologica 33(4): 455-458.

Tracy, C.R. 1977. Minimum size of mammalian homeotherms: The role of the thermal environment. Science 198: 1034-1035.

Tracy, C.R., G.C. Packard, and M.J. Packard. 1978. Water relations of chelonian eggs. Physiological Zoology 51: 378-387.

Tracy, C.R. and W.L. Rubink. 1978. The role of dehydration and antidiuretic hormone on water exchange in Rana pipiens. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 61A: 559-562.

Tracy, C.R., B.J. Tracy, and D.S. Dobkin. 1978. The role of posturing in behavioral thermoregulation in black dragons (Hagenius brevistylus Selys). Physiological Zoology 52(4): 565-571.

Tracy, C.R. and P.R. Sotherland. 1978. Boundary layers of bird eggs: Do they ever constitute a significant barrier to water loss? Physiological Zoology 52: 63-66.

Packard, G.C., T.L. Taigen, T.L. Boardman, M.J. Packard, P.R. Sotherland, and C.R. Tracy. 1978. Changes in mass of turtle (Trionyx spiniferus) eggs incubated on substrates differing in water potential. Herpetologica 35: 78-86.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. On the water relations of parchment-shelled lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) eggs. Copeia 1978: 478-482.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. Comments on emissivity: A little-explored variable. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. Further thoughts on anuran thermoregulation. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. The evolutiono-engineering approach. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. Extraretinal photoreception: Words of caution. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. Comments on coevolution. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Tracy, C.R. 1978. Visual functions of color: The predictive approach. In: The Behavioral Significance of Color, E.H. Burtt (Ed.), Garland Publishers, New York.

Anderson, R.V., Z. Abramsky, and C.R. Tracy. 1979. Thermoregulation, evaporative water loss, and habitat selection in two species of grasshoppers. Oecologia 38: 359-374.

Abramsky, Z. and C.R. Tracy. 1979. A “non-cycling” population of prairie voles: Consideration of the role of migration in microtine cycles. Ecology 60: 349-361.

Tracy, B.J., C.R. Tracy, and D.S. Dobkin. 1979. Desiccation in the black dragon (Hagenius brevistylus). Experientia 35: 751.

Abramsky, Z. and C.R. Tracy. 1980. Activity patterns and home range size of Microtus ochrogaster in manipulated short-grass prairie in northeastern Colorado. Oikos 34: 347-355.

McGovern, M. and C.R. Tracy. 1980. Phenotypic variation in electromorphs previously considered to be genetic markers in Microtus ochrogaster. Oecologia 51: 276-280.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1980. Santa Fe Island since the eradication of feral goats. Noticias de Galapagos 31: 16-17.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1981. The effect of the thermal environment on the ability of hatchling Galapagos land iguanas to avoid predation during dispersal. Oecologia 49: 218-223.

Turner, J.S. and C.R. Tracy. 1982. The importance of appendage blood flow to heating and cooling of American alligators. Physiological Zoology 56(2): 195-200.

Tracy, C.R. 1982. Biophysical modelling in reptilian physiology and ecology. In: Biology of the Reptilia, C. Gans and F.H. Pough (Eds.), Academic Press, London, Volume 12, pp 275-321.

Scott, J.R., C.R. Tracy, and D. Pettus. 1982. A biophysical analysis of daily and seasonal utilization of climate space by a montane snake. Ecology 63(2): 482-493.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1982. Evidence for thermoregulation in mating Fowler's toads? Science 219: 518-519.

McGovern, M. and C.R. Tracy. 1982. Microtus ochrogaster. In: Handbook of Census Methods for Terrestrial Vertebrates, D.E. Davis (Ed.), C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1982. Reproductive behavior of Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) on Isla Santa Fe, Galapagos. In: Iguanas of the World: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, G.M. Burghart and A.S. Rand (Eds.), Noyes Publications, NJ.

Christian, K.A., C.R. Tracy, and W.P. Porter. 1983. Seasonal shifts in body temperature and use of microhabitats by the Galapagos land iguana. Ecology 64(3): 463-468.

Tracy, C.R., R.A. Lechleitner, K.A. Hammond, W.J. Smith, D.B. Thompson, A.D. Whicker, and S.C. Williamson. 1983. Estimating clear day solar radiation: An evaluation of three models. Journal of Thermal Biology 8(3): 247-251.

Porter, W.P. and C.R. Tracy. 1983. Biophysical analysis of energetics, time-space utilization, and distributional limits of lizards. pp. 55-83 In: Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism, R.B. Huey, E.R. Pianka, and T. Schoener (Eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tracy C.R., van Berkum, F.H., J.S. Tsuji, R.D. Stevenson, J.A. Nelson, B.M. Barnes, and R.B. Huey. 1983. Errors resulting from approximations in energy balance equations. Journal of Thermal Biology 9(4): 261-266.

Christian, K.A., C.R. Tracy, and W.P. Porter. 1983. The diet, digestion and food preference of the Galapagos land iguanas. Herpetologica 40(2): 205-212.

Christian, K.A., C.R. Tracy, and W.P. Porter. 1983. The physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana, Conolophus pallidus. Ecology 65(3): 752-758.

Tracy, C.R. and K.A. Christian. 1983. Are the tails of Galapagos marine iguanas flattened? British Journal of Herpetology 6: 434-435.

Snell, H.L., H.M. Snell, and C.R. Tracy. 1984. Variation among populations of Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus): Contrasts of phylogeny and ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 21: 185-207.

Sotherland, P.R., M.D. Ashen, R.D. Shuman, and C.R. Tracy. 1984. The water balance of bird eggs incubated in water. Physiological Zoology 57(3): 338-348.

Sotherland, P.R., M.D. Ashen, and C.R. Tracy. 1984. The water balance of eared grebe eggs incubated in wet and dry nests. Awk

Turner, J.S. and C.R. Tracy. 1984. Body size and the control of heat exchange in alligators. Journal of Thermal Biology 10(1): 9-11.

Waldschmidt, S. and C.R. Tracy. 1982. Interactions between a lizard and its thermal environment: Implications for sprint performance and space utilization in the lizard Uta stansburiana. Ecology 64(3): 476-484.

Tracy, C.R. 1982. What is physiological ecology? Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 63: 340-347.

Turner, J.S., C.R. Tracy, B. Weigler, and T. Baynes. 1984. Burst swimming in alligators and the effect of temperature. Journal of Herpetology 19(4): 450-458.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1985. Errors in the measurement of air temperature mediated by solar radiation. Journal of Thermal Biology 10(1): 55-56.

Christian, K.A. and C.R. Tracy. 1985. The physical and biotic determinants of space utilization by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus). Oecologia 66(1): 132-140.

McGovern, M. and C.R. Tracy. 1985. Physiological plasticity in electromorphs of blood proteins in free-ranging Microtus ochrogaster. Ecology 66(2): 396-403.

Christian, K.A., C.R. Tracy, and W.P. Porter. 1985. Inter- and intra-individual variation in body temperatures of the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus). Journal of Thermal Biology 10(1): 47-50.

Tracy, C.R. and H.L. Snell. 1985. Interrelations among water and energy relations of reptilian eggs, embryos, and hatchlings. American Zoologist 25: 999-1008.

Snell, H.L. and C.R. Tracy. 1985. Behavioral and morphological adaptations by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus) to water and energy requirements of eggs and neonates. American Zoologist 25: 1009-1018.

Tracy, C.R. and K.A. Christian. 1986. Ecological relations among space, time and thermal niche vectors. Ecology 67(3): 609-615.

Turner, J.S. and C.R. Tracy. 1986. Body size, homeothermy, and the control of heat exchange in mammal-like reptiles. In: Ecology and Biology of Mammal-Like Reptiles, P.D. MacLean, J.J. Roth, E.C. Roth and N. Hotton (Eds.), Smithsonian Press, Washington, DC.

Tracy, C.R., J.S. Turner, and R.B. Huey. 1986. A biophysical analysis of possible thermoregulatory adaptations in pelycosaurs. Pp. 195-205 In: Ecology and Biology of Mammal-Like Reptiles, P.D. MacLean, J.J. Roth, E.C. Roth, and N. Hotton (Eds.), Smithsonian Press, Washington, DC.

Christian, K.A., C.R. Tracy, and W.P. Porter. 1986. The effect of cold exposure during incubation of Sceloporus undulatus eggs. Copeia 1986(4): 1012-1014.

Christian, K.A., W.P. Porter, and C.R. Tracy. 1986. Core areas within the home ranges of Galapagos land iguanas, Conolophus pallidus. Journal of Herpetology 20(2): 270 - 274.

McGovern, M. and C.R. Tracy. 1987. Demographic characteristics of fenced and unfenced populations of Microtus ochrogaster in manipulated plots of short-grass prairie. Mammalia 51(1): 65-79.

Whicker, A.D. and C.R. Tracy. 1987. Tenebrionid beetles in the shortgrass prairie: Daily and seasonal patterns of activity and temperature. Ecological Entomology 12: 97-108.

Zimmerman, L.C. and C.R. Tracy. 1989. Interactions between the environment, and ectothermy and herbivory in reptiles. Physiological Zoology 62: 374-409.

Tracy, C.R. and J. Sugar. 1989. Potential misuse of ANCOVA. Physiological Zoology 62: 993-997.

Sugar, J. and C.R. Tracy. 1989. Is the sex of a dissertation advisor related to a young scientist’s rate of publication? American Psychologist 44: 574-584.

Tracy, C.R. 1992. Ecological responses of animals to climate. Pp. 171-179 In: Global Warming and Biological Diversity, R.L. Peters and T.E. Lovejoy (Eds.), Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Tracy, C.R., C.R. Tracy, and J.S. Turner. 1992. Comparison of the physiological ability to control heating and cooling in an amphibian, Rana berlanderi, and a reptile, Sauromalus obesus. Herpetologica 48(1): 57-62.

Tracy, C.R. and T.L. George. 1992. On the determinants of extinction. American Naturalist 139(1): 102‑122.

Tracy, C.R., C.R. Tracy, and J.S. Turner. 1992. Contrasting physiological abilities for heating and cooling in an amphibian (Rana pipiens) and a reptile (Sauromalus obesus). Herpetologica 48(1): 57.

O'Connor, M.P. and C.R. Tracy. 1992. Thermoregulation by juvenile toads of Bufo woodhousei in the field and in the laboratory. Copeia 1992(3): 865-879.

Zimmerman, L.C. and C.R. Tracy. 1992. Pattern of recolonization by amphibians following the Lawn Lake Flood in Rocky Mountain Park. Pp 148-162 In: Ecological Effects of the Lawn Lake Flood of 1992, Rocky Mountain National Park, H. E. McCutchen, R. Heerman, and D.S. Stevens (Eds.), Scientific Monograph NPS/NRROMO/NRSM-93/21, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service.

Tracy, C.R. and T.L. George. 1993. Extinction probabilities for British island birds: A reply. American Naturalist 142(6): 1036.

Tracy, C.R. and J.A. Sugar. 1993. On selecting new faculty in the 1990s. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 74: 12-15.

Tracy, C.R., K.A. Christian, M.P. O'Connor, and C.R. Tracy. 1994. Behavioral thermoregulation in Bufo americanus : The importance of the hydric environment. Herpetologica 49(3): 375-382.

Tracy, C.R., P.F. Brussard, and D.D. Murphy. 1994. Cattle and conservation -- another view. Conservation Biology 8(4): 919-921.

Tracy, C.R. and P.F. Brussard. 1994. Preserving biodiversity: Species in landscapes. Ecological Applications 4(2): 205-207

Tracy, C.R. and C.R. Tracy. 1995. Estimating age of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) from scute rings. Copeia 1995(4): 964-966.

Peters, E.L., S.A. Ibrahim, C.R. Tracy, F.W. Whicker, and K.A. Nagy. 1995. Estimation of the metabolic rate of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) by a radionuclide technique. Physiological Zoology 68(2): 316-341.

Wilson, Dawn S., Christopher R. Tracy and C. Richard Tracy. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from scute rings: a critical review of the technique. Herpetologica 59(2):178-194.

Tartowski, S.L., E.B. Allen, N.E. Barrett, A.R. Berkowitz, R.K. Colwell, P.M. Groffman, J. Harte, H.P. Possingham, C.M. Pringle, D.L. Strayer, and C.R. Tracy. 1996. Toward a resolution of conflicting paradigms. In: The Ecological Basis of Conservation: Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity, S.T.A. Pickett, R.S. Ostfield, M. Shachak, and G.E. Likens (Eds.), Chapman & Hall, NY.

Tracy, C.R. and P.F. Brussard. 1996. The importance of science in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 10: 918-919.

Espinoza, R.E. and C.R. Tracy. 1997. Thermal biology, metabolism, and hibernation. Pp. 159-194, In: The Biology, Husbandry and Health Care of Reptiles. L.J. Ackerman (Ed.), T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ.

Brussard, P.F., J.M. Reed, and C.R. Tracy. 1998. Ecosystem management: What is it really? Landscape and Urban Planning 40: (1-3) 9-20.

Espinoza, R.E., C.R. Tracy, and C.R. Tracy. 1998. A safe, single-application procedure for eradicating mites on reptiles. Herpetological Review 29:

Espinoza, R. E., C. A. Carreño, C. R. Tracy, and C. R. Tracy. 1998. Geographic distribution. Sauromalus obesus obesus. Herpetological Review 29:51–52.

Dunham, J., M. Peacock, C.R. Tracy, J. Nielsen, and G. Vinyard. 1999. Assessing extinction risk: Integrating genetic information. Conservation Ecology [online] 3(1): 2. Available from the internet. URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss1/art2

Dean-Bradley, K. and C.R. Tracy. 2000. The importance of diet on digestive properties and processes in the desert tortoise. In: Foraging and Nutritional Ecology of Tortoises, H. Avery, T. Esque, K. Bjorndahl, and C.R. Tracy (Eds.), University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.

Wilson, D.S., C.R. Tracy, K.A. Nagy, and D.J. Morafka. 2001. Physical and microhabitat characteristics of burrows used by juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(3): 448-454.

DeFalco, L.A., J.K. Detling, C.R. Tracy, and S.D. Warren. 2001. Physiological variation among native and exotic winter annual plants associated with microbiotic crusts in the Mojave Desert. Plant and Soil 234: 1-14.

Wilson, D.S., K.A. Nagy, C.R. Tracy, D.J. Morafka, and R.A. Yates. 2001. Water balance in neonate and juvenile desert tortoises, Gopherus agassiziiHerpetological Monographs 15: 158-170.

Simandle, E.T., R.E. Espinoza, K.E. Nussear, and C.R. Tracy. 2001. Lizards, lipids, and dietary links to animal function. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 74(5): 625–640.

Wilson, D.S., D. J. Morafka,  C.R. Tracy, and K. Nagy. Winter activity patterns for juvenile desert tortoises. Journal of Herpetology 33(3): 496-501.

Nussear, K.E., E.T. Simandle, and C.R. Tracy. 2000. Misconceptions about colour, infrared radiation, and energy exchange between animals and their environments. Herpetological Journal 10: 119-122.

Nussear, K.E., T.C. Esque, and C.R. Tracy. 2002. Continuously recording body temperature in terrestrial chelonians. Herpetological Review 32(2): 113-115.

Jones, D., E.T. Simandle, C.R. Tracy, and B. Hobbs. 2003. Bufo nelsoni (Amargosa toad). Predation by an introduced species. Herpetological Review 34(3):229

Wilson, D.S., C.R. Tracy, and C.R. Tracy. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from scute rings: A critical review of the technique. Herpetologica, 59(2): 178–194

Tracy, C.R., K. Dean Bradley, L.C. Zimmerman, K. Castle, C.R. Tracy. 2004. Rates of food passage in the digestive tract of young desert tortoises: Effects of body size and diet quality. Chelonian Conservation and Biology. 5(2).

Espinoza, R.E., J.J. Wiens, and C.R. Tracy. 2004. Novel ecophysiological adaptations promote multiple origins of herbivory in a group of South American lizards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 101(48): 16819–16824

Tracy, C.R., R. Averill-Murray, W. I. Boarman, D. Delehanty, J. Heaton, E. McCoy, D. Morafka, K. Nussear, B. Hagerty, P. Medica. 2004. Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan Assessment. Miscellaneous Publication of the Biological Resources Research Center.  276 pp.


C.R. Tracy, K.M. Flack, L.C. Zimmerman, R.E. Espinoza, C.R. Tracy. 2005. Herbivory imposes constraints on voluntary hypothermia in lizards.  Copeia 2005(1): 12-19.

Nussear, K.E. and C. R. Tracy. 2006. Can modeling of desert tortoise activity improve estimation of population densities. Ecological Applications  17(2): 579-586.

Field K. J., C. R. Tracy, P. A. Medica, R. W. Marlow, and P. S. Corn. 2006. Translocation as a conservation tool for the desert tortoise: is success affected by pre-release water availability. J. Biol. Conservation. 136: 232-245.

Xin Miao, Peng Gong, Sarah Swope, Ruiliang Pu, Raymond Carruthers, Gerald L. Anderson, Jill S. Heaton, C.Richard Tracy. 2006. Estimation of yellow starthistle abundance through CASI-2 hyperspectral imagery using linear spectral mixture models. Remote Sensing of Environment 101: 329–341

Tracy C.R., K. E. Nussear, T. C. Esque, K. Dean-Bradley, C. R. Tracy, L. A. DeFalco, K. T. Castle, L. C. Zimmerman, R. E. Espinoza, and A. M. Barber. 2006. The importance of physiological ecology in conservation biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology, pp. 1–15. doi:10.1093/icb/icl054. This is an Open Access article http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Tracy, Christopher R., K. A. Christian, S. Reynolds, L. McArthur, and C. Richard Tracy. 2007.  Ecology of aestivation in a burrowing frog, Cyclorana australis (Hylidae). Copeia 2007(4): 901- 912

Christian, K. A., Christopher R. Tracy, and C. Richard Tracy. 2006. Evaluating thermoregulation in reptiles: An appropriate null model. The American Naturalist 168(3):421-430.

Nussear, K.E., T. C. Esque, D. F. Haines,and C. R. Tracy. 2007. Hibernation in the Mojave desert tortoise: hibernation temperatures, timing, and environment. Copeia 2007(2): 378-386.

Tracy, C. R. 2006. Science and biological resources in Nevada. in, G. Chisholm, C. Elphick, Nevada Breeding Bird Atlas. University of Nevada Press. Reno, NV pp. xi-xii

Tracy, C.R., G. Betts, C.R. Tracy, and K.A. Christian. 2007. Plaster models to measure operative temperature and evaporative water loss of amphibians Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 597–603

Downs, C.J., J.P. Hayes, and C.R. Tracy. 2008. Confidence Limits for Scaling Metabolic Rate with Body Mass and Body Temperature: Testing the Arrhenius Fractal Supply Model . Functional Ecology Functional Ecology 22:239–244

Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Betts, G., Tracy, C.R. 2008 Body temperature and resistance to evaporative water loss in tropical Australian frogs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 150 (2008) 102–108

Gienger, C. M. and C. R. Tracy. 2008. Ecological interactions between Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) and desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). The Southwestern Naturalist 53(2):265–268

Gienger, C.M. and C.R. Tracy 2008 Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster) prey. Herpetological Review 39(2): 224-226.

Hagerty, B.E., M.M. Peacock, V.S. Kirchoff, and C.R. Tracy  2008. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mojave desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii.  Molecular Ecology Resources; 

doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02208.x

Gienger, C.M. and C.R. Tracy. 2008. Natural History Notes: Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster) Prey. Herpetological Review 39:224-226

Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Szabolcs Lengyel, Béla Kiss, and C. Richard Tracy. 2008. Clutch size determination in shorebirds: revisiting incubation limitation in the pied avocet ( Recurvirostra avosetta). Journal of Animal Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01486.x

Hunter, K. W., S. A. duPre, T. Sharp, F. C. Sandmeier, C. R. Tracy. 2008. Western blot can distinguish natural and acquired antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Journal of Microbiological Methods 75 (2008) 464–471

Sandmeier, F.C., C. R. Tracy, S. duPre, K. Hunter. 2009. Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) as a threat to desert tortoise populations: A reevaluation. Biological Conservation 142 (2009) 1255–1268.

Patil, R, X. Miao, J.S. Heaton, and C.R. Tracy. 2009.  High-accuracy geo-registration for high spatial resolution imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing.

Field, K.J., C.R. Tracy, P.A. Medica, R.W. Marlow, and P.S. Corn. 2009. Return to the wild: Translocation as a tool in conservation of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Biological Conservation 142 (2009) 1255–1268

Hagerty, B.E. and C.R. Tracy. 2010. Defining population structure for the Mojave desert tortoise. Conservation Genetics. DOI 10.1007/s10592-010-0073-0

R.D. Inman, K. E. Nussear, and C. R. Tracy. 2009. Detecting trends in desert tortoise population growth: elusive behavior inflates variance in estimates of population density. Endangered Species Research.

doi: 10.3354/esr00214

Tracy, Christopher R., K. A. Christian, S. Reynolds, L. McArthur, and C. Richard Tracy. 2007.  Ecology of aestivation in a burrowing frog, Cyclorana australis (Hylidae). Copeia 2007(4): 901- 912

Tracy, Christopher R., Keith A. Christian, and C. Richard Tracy.  2010. Not just small, wet, and cold:  Interacting effects of body size, skin resistance, and microclimate on thermoregulation and arboreality in frogs. Ecology 91(5), 1477–1484

Mohammadpour, H.A. , C.R. Tracy, D. Redelman, S.A. duPre’ and K.W. Hunter. 2009. Flow cytometric method for quantifying viable Mycoplasma agassizii, an agent of upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).  Letters in Applied Microbiology 


Esque, T.C., J. P. Kaye, S. E. Eckert, L. A. DeFalco,  C. R. Tracy. 2010. Short-term soil inorganic N pulse after experimental fire alters invasive and native annual plant production in a Mojave Desert shrubland, Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s00442-010-1617-1

Esque, T.C, J. A. Young, C. R. Tracy. 2010. Short-term effects of experimental fires on a Mojave Desert seed bank. Journal of Arid Environments

B.E. Hagerty and C.R. Tracy. 2011. A history of Mojave Desert tortoise movement: a view through the window of population genetics. Mojave National Preserve Science Newsletter 2011(1): 1-7.

F.C. Sandmeier, C.R. Tracy, S. DuPré, H. Mohammadpour, and K. Hunter. 2011.  Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), mycoplasmosis, and antibody responses in the Mojave Desert tortoise, Mojave National Preserve Science Newsletter 2011(1): 8-13

Hagerty, B.E., K.E. Nussear, T.C. Esque, C.R. Tracy. 2011. Making molehills out of mountains: landscape genetics of the Mojave desert tortoise. Landscape Ecol, 26:267–280 DOI 10.1007/s10980-010-9550-6

Drake, KK, KE Nussear, TC Esque, AM Barber, KM Vittum, PA Medica, CR Tracy and KW Hunter Jr. 2012. Does translocation influence physiological stress in the desert tortoise? Animal Conservation doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00549.x

F.C. Sandmeier, C.R. Tracy, S. DuPre´ and K. Hunter Jr. 2012. A trade-off between natural and acquired antibody production in a reptile: implications for long-term resistance to disease. Biology Open 0, 1–5  doi: 10.1242/bio.20122527

Nussear, K.E., C.R. Tracy, P.A. Medica, D.S. Wilson, R.W. Marlow, P.S. Corn. 2012. Translocation as a Conservation Tool for Agassiz’s Desert Tortoises: Survivorship, Reproduction, and Movements. The Journal of Wildlife Management; DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.390

Drake, K.K., K.E. Nussear, T.C. Esque, A.M. Barber, K.M. Vittum, P.A. Medica, C.R. Tracy, and K.W. Hunter Jr. 2013. Does translocation influence physiological stress in the desert tortoise. Animal Conservation 15:560-570.

Keehn, J.E., N.C. Nieto, C.R Tracy, C.M. Gienger, and C.R. Feldman. 2013. Evolution on a desert island: body size divergence between the reptiles of Nevada’s Anaho Island and the mainland around Pyramid Lake. Journal of Zoology doi:10.1111/jzo.12066

Lucas, A.M., C.F. Scholl, D.M. Murphy, C.R. Tracy, and M.L. Forister. 2013. Geographic distribution, habitat association, and host quality for one of the most geographically restricted butterflies in North America: Thorne’s hairstreak (Mitoura thornei). Insect Conservation and Diversity. Doi 10.1111/icad.12057


Hagerty, B.E., F.C. Sandmeier, and C.R. Tracy. 20xx. Knowledge and managing a federally-listed species: a case study. Conservation Biology (submitted)

Jeffrey P. Schloss, Amanda K. Sparkman, Curtis P. Hamann, Micah J. Schloss, Dathan Hamann,  and C. Richard Tracy. 20xx. Vasotocin Can Reverse Water Flow Across Amphibian Integument. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (submitted)

Delehanty, D.J., D.A. Schooley, J.M. Reed, and C.R. Tracy. 20xx. Dietary lutein accelerates sexual maturation and increases fecundity of mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (submitted)

K.H. Kuhn, C.M. Gienger, C.R. Tracy. 20xx. Small Mammals of Pyramid Lake: Insular Gigantism on Anaho Island. Southwestern Naturalist (submitted)

Gienger, C.M., N.A. Dochtermann, C.R. Tracy. 20xx. Detecting latitudinal trends in body size: the trouble with turtles. Evolution (submitted)

Tracy, C.R., W.R. Barnes, L.C. Zimmerman, R.E. Espinoza, and C.R. Tracy. 20xx. Voluntary hypothermia: The importance of energetics in a carnivorous lizard. Functional Ecology (submitted).

Christian K. A, C. R. Tracy, and W. P. Porter. 20xx. Phenotypic plasticity in lizard eggs among years and sites. Functional Ecology (submitted)


Improved Method of Preserving Nasal Lavage Material from the Desert Tortoise for Analysis of Microbial RNAs by Quantitative PCR

Blomquist, S.M., K.A. Hatch, E.T. Simandle, C.R. Tracy, J.P. Hayes, J.C. Tull, and K.J. Field. Evaluation of monitoring methods for aquatic amphibians using the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) as a model species. .

Espinoza, R.E. and C.R. Tracy. Thermoregulatory constraints and opportunities for heliothermic lizards at high elevations.

Ramotnik, C.A. and C.R. Tracy. Factors influencing the limited range and distribution of the Jemez Mountains salamander, Plethodon neomexicanus.

K. A. Christian, C. R. Tracy and C. R. Tracy. Reflectance of Australian frog skins. In prep.


1968; Seasonal activities, homing and orientation in the California toad (Bufo boreas halophilus).  M.S. Thesis; California State University, Northridge; Jim W. Dole, Major Professor

1972; A model of the water and energy dynamic interrelationships between an amphibian and its environment.  Ph.D. Dissertation; University of Wisconsin, Madison; Warren P. Porter, Major Professor

Dick Tracy

Curriculum Vitaehttp://dl.dropbox.com/u/8411712/CRTCV0911awlineage.pdf